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J Neural Eng. 2014 Feb;11(1):016009. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/11/1/016009. Epub 2014 Jan 20.

Chronic cortical and electromyographic recordings from a fully implantable device: preclinical experience in a nonhuman primate.

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  • 1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, 779 Moffitt, 505 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.



Analysis of intra- and perioperatively recorded cortical and basal ganglia local field potentials in human movement disorders has provided great insight into the pathophysiology of diseases such as Parkinson's, dystonia, and essential tremor. However, in order to better understand the network abnormalities and effects of chronic therapeutic stimulation in these disorders, long-term recording from a fully implantable data collection system is needed.


A fully implantable investigational data collection system, the Activa® PC + S neurostimulator (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN), has been developed for human use. Here, we tested its utility for extended intracranial recording in the motor system of a nonhuman primate. The system was attached to two quadripolar paddle arrays: one covering sensorimotor cortex, and one covering a proximal forelimb muscle, to study simultaneous cortical field potentials and electromyography during spontaneous transitions from rest to movement.


Over 24 months of recording, movement-related changes in physiologically relevant frequency bands were readily detected, including beta and gamma signals at approximately 2.5 μV/[Formula: see text] and 0.7 μV/[Formula: see text], respectively. The system architecture allowed for flexible recording configurations and algorithm triggered data recording. In the course of physiological analyses, sensing artifacts were observed (∼1 μVrms stationary tones at fixed frequency), which were mitigated either with post-processing or algorithm design and did not impact the scientific conclusions. Histological examination revealed no underlying tissue damage; however, a fibrous capsule had developed around the paddles, demonstrating a potential mechanism for the observed signal amplitude reduction.


This study establishes the usefulness of this system in measuring chronic brain and muscle signals. Use of this system may potentially be valuable in human trials of chronic brain recording in movement disorders, a next step in the design of closed-loop neurostimulation paradigms.

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