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Am Heart J. 2014 Feb;167(2):267-273.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.11.005. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Influence of heart failure symptoms and ejection fraction on short- and long-term outcomes for older patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

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  • 1Divisions of Critical Care and Cardiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:
  • 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.
  • 3Division of Cardiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.



Symptomatic heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (REF) are both associated with mortality, but the long-term outcomes associated with the development of HF in older non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients with preserved systolic function and REF are uncertain.


We analyzed a total of 26,291 NSTEMI patients ≥65 years discharged alive in the CRUSADE Registry who had linked Medicare data. We evaluated 30-day and 1-year risks of mortality and HF readmission in 4 cohorts of patients stratified by symptomatic HF and ejection fraction: (1) no HF-PEF, (2) no HF-REF, (3) HF-PEF, and (4) HF-REF.


A total of 14,280 NSTEMI patients (54.3%) had no HF-PEF, 3,345 (12.7%) had no HF-REF, 4,913 (18.7%) had HF-PEF, and 3,753 (14.3%) had HF-REF. Compared with no HF-PEF patients, the 30-day mortality risk was higher among patients with no HF-REF (4.9% vs 1.7%, adjusted hazard ratio 2.11, 95% CI 1.69-2.63), HF-PEF (5.9% vs 1.7%, adjusted hazard ratio 1.99, 95% CI 1.64-2.41), and highest among those with HF-REF (9.3% vs 1.7%, adjusted hazard ratio 2.70, 95% CI 2.23-3.26). Similar relationships were noted in the adjusted 1-year mortality and the risks of 30-day and 1-year HF readmission.


Symptomatic HF and REF during the index NSTEMI hospitalization are both associated with an increased risk of short- and long-term mortality as well as HF readmission with an apparent additive prognostic impact of both factors.

© 2014.

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