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J Helminthol. 2015 Mar;89(2):232-7. doi: 10.1017/S0022149X13000837. Epub 2014 Jan 16.

Detection of hydatid-specific antibodies in the serum and urine for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in patients from the Kashmir Valley, India.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology.
  • 2Department of General Surgery.
  • 3Department of Cardiovascular Thoracic Surgery.
  • 4Department of Gastroenterology,Sheri-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences,Srinagar-190011,Jammu and Kashmir,India.


Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is usually made by detecting specific antibodies in serum samples. However, collection of blood samples is difficult and may be hazardous and unsafe. Thus, it is important to assess alternative simple methods of sampling body fluids that give similar results. Saliva and urine have been suggested as possible alternatives to detect specific antibodies for the diagnosis of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously published study regarding the detection of CE-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass antibodies (IgG1-4) in urine. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the value of hydatid-specific antibodies of IgG, IgM, IgE and IgG subclass in urine and serum samples for the diagnosis of CE. Serum and urine samples of 41 surgically confirmed patients of CE, 40 patients with other diseases and 16 healthy subjects were included in the study. CE-specific total IgG, IgE and IgG4 in sera and total IgG, IgG4 and IgG1 in the urine of CE patients were the most important specific antibodies for the diagnosis of CE. However, total IgG usually persists for an extended period and has a very high cross-reactivity. The diagnostic sensitivity of hydatid-specific IgM in serum and urine samples was very low and therefore cannot be used as a diagnostic marker. There was no significant difference between IgG1 and IgG4 in serum and urine and both showed the best correlation for the diagnosis of CE. These considerations suggest that detection of antibodies in urine could provide a new approach in the diagnosis of CE.

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