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J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Jan;62(1):16-24. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12607. Epub 2014 Jan 13.

Ten-year effects of the advanced cognitive training for independent and vital elderly cognitive training trial on cognition and everyday functioning in older adults.

Author information

  • 1Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; Center on Aging and Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the effects of cognitive training on cognitive abilities and everyday function over 10 years.

DESIGN:

Ten-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled single-blind trial (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE)) with three intervention groups and a no-contact control group.

SETTING:

Six U.S. cities.

PARTICIPANTS:

A volunteer sample of 2,832 persons (mean baseline age 73.6; 26% African American) living independently.

INTERVENTION:

Ten training sessions for memory, reasoning, or speed of processing; four sessions of booster training 11 and 35 months after initial training.

MEASUREMENTS:

Objectively measured cognitive abilities and self-reported and performance-based measures of everyday function.

RESULTS:

Participants in each intervention group reported less difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (memory: effect size = 0.48, 99% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.84; reasoning: effect size = 0.38, 99% CI = 0.02-0.74; speed of processing: effect size = 0.36, 99% CI = 0.01-0.72). At a mean age of 82, approximately 60% of trained participants, versus 50% of controls (P < .05), were at or above their baseline level of self-reported IADL function at 10 years. The reasoning and speed-of-processing interventions maintained their effects on their targeted cognitive abilities at 10 years (reasoning: effect size = 0.23, 99% CI = 0.09-0.38; speed of processing: effect size = 0.66, 99% CI = 0.43-0.88). Memory training effects were no longer maintained for memory performance. Booster training produced additional and durable improvement for the reasoning intervention for reasoning performance (effect size = 0.21, 99% CI = 0.01-0.41) and the speed-of-processing intervention for speed-of-processing performance (effect size = 0.62, 99% CI = 0.31-0.93).

CONCLUSION:

Each Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly cognitive intervention resulted in less decline in self-reported IADL compared with the control group. Reasoning and speed, but not memory, training resulted in improved targeted cognitive abilities for 10 years.

© 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

KEYWORDS:

cognitive abilities; cognitive training; elderly; everyday function; training maintenance

PMID:
24417410
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4055506
Free PMC Article
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