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Endocrine. 2014 Sep;47(1):290-8. doi: 10.1007/s12020-013-0153-2. Epub 2014 Jan 11.

Current prevalence of goiter determined by ultrasonography and associated risk factors in a formerly iodine-deficient area of Turkey.

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  • 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey,


The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of goiter and related risk factors in an adult population in a formerly iodine-deficient area of Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 2,500 subjects (1,270 women and 1,230 men, aged over 20 years) by multistage sampling. Blood and urine specimens were collected for the assessment of thyroid function. Thyroid ultrasonography (USG) was performed to measure thyroid volume and evaluate nodules. The overall goiter prevalence was 26.5 % (28.4 % in women, 24.5 % in men, P < 0.05). Median thyroid volume was 15.59 mL (13.65 mL in women, 17.96 mL in men, P < 0.0001). Median urinary iodine was 122.79 μg/L. USG revealed thyroid nodules in 35.2 % of the subjects (38.4 % in women, 31.8 % in men, P < 0.005). Age group analysis revealed the lowest rate in the 20-29-year age group (12.5 %), which increased with age, reaching the highest level (38.4 %) in the 70+ years age group. The prevalence of goiter was negatively correlated with education level and positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and positive family history. According to occupation, goiter prevalence was highest in farmers (35.3 %) and housewives (32.2 %). Despite a normal range of current urinary iodine excretion levels, prevalence of goiter in this adult population in a formerly iodine-deficient province of Turkey remained high, even about 10 years after salt iodine supplementation program introduction. In addition, the goiter prevalence was higher for female gender, advanced age, positive family history of goiter, low education level, and high BMI.

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