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Prostate Int. 2013;1(4):146-51. doi: 10.12954/PI.13026. Epub 2013 Dec 30.

Histopathological spectrum of 364 prostatic specimens including immunohistochemistry with special reference to grey zone lesions.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, MM Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Mullana, India.



Prostatic lesions on routine staining sometimes cause a diagnostic dilemma, especially when malignant tissue is limited and is mixed with benign prostatic glands or because of the presence of benign mimickers of carcinoma. The application of immunohistochemistry contributes a valuable differential diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate a complete spectrum of various prostatic lesions and to supplement the histopathological diagnosis with immunohistochemistry in suspicious or atypical cases.


A total of 364 consecutive prostatic specimens were evaluated. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining against 34βE12 cytokeratin and proliferative marker (alpha-methylacyl-CoA-racemase, AMACR) were performed by use of the peroxidase antiperoxidase method.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia was the most frequent finding and involved 285 patients (78.3%). Prostatitis (majority nonspecific) formed the predominant subgroup in nonneoplastic lesions (n=119, 32.7%). The incidence of carcinoma was low (n=73, 20.1%). Of the 26 atypical or suspicious cases, 18 cases were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratin (high molecular weight cytokeratin, HMWCK) only, 4 cases were positive for AMACR only, and 4 cases showed positivity for both HMWCK and AMACR.


Biopsy remains the gold standard. However, as an adjunct to biopsy, proliferative markers and basal cell markers have value for resolving suspicious or atypical cases.


Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase; Cytokeratin; Immunohistochemistry; Malignancy; Prostate

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