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Nutrition. 2014 Apr;30(4):410-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2013.09.001. Epub 2013 Dec 23.

Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome.

Author information

  • 1Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine & Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Electronic address: angeliki.papadaki@bristol.ac.uk.
  • 2Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine & Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
  • 3Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • 4Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Centre, The Netherlands.
  • 5MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, UK.
  • 6Department of Clinical Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany, and Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Berlin, Germany.
  • 7Department of Physiology and Nutrition, CIBERobn, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
  • 8Department of Human Nutrition, Dietetics and Metabolic Diseases, National Multiprofile Transport Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  • 9Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.
  • 10Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.

METHODS:

Secondary analyses were performed within the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (2006-2008), a randomized controlled dietary intervention. Nine hundred and thirty-eight overweight and obese adults from eight European countries entered an 8-wk low-calorie-diet period. Seven hundred and seventy-three adults who lost at least 8% of their body weights were randomized to one of five ad libitum diets for 6 mo: 1) low-protein (LP)/low-GI (LGI); 2) LP/high-GI (HGI); 3) high-protein (HP)/LGI; 4) HP/HGI; and 5) control diet. MetSyn prevalence and a standardized MetSyn score were assessed at baseline, after the low-calorie diet, and after the intervention.

RESULTS:

Weight loss among participants while on the low-calorie diet significantly reduced MetSyn prevalence (33.9% versus 15.9%; P < 0.001) and MetSyn score (-1.48 versus -4.45; P < 0.001). During weight maintenance, significant changes in MetSyn score were observed between the groups, with the highest increase detected in the LP/HGI group (P = 0.039, partial η(2) = 0.023). Protein, GI, and their interaction did not have isolated effects on study outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Neither protein nor GI affected MetSyn status in this sample of European overweight and obese adults. However, a diet with a combination of an increased protein-to-carbohydrate ratio with low-GI foods had beneficial effects on MetSyn factors.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

DiOGenes; Dietary intervention; Glycemic index; Metabolic syndrome; Obesity; Protein

PMID:
24369912
[PubMed - in process]
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