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Heart Lung Vessel. 2013;5(4):201-6.

Transapical mitral valve implantation: the Lutter valve.

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  • 1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, School of Medicine, Kiel, Germany.
  • 2Department of Cardiology, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, School of Medicine, Kiel, Germany.
  • 3Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.


  The development of transcatheter techniques for treatment of severe mitral valve regurgitation in the beating heart is focus of recent research. An off-pump treatment technique poses great benefits, particularly for multimorbid patients, often being non-compliant to the gold standard treatment, being open heart surgery with use of a cardiopulmonary bypass. Thereto, two approaches are being followed: transcatheter valve repair and transcatheterimplantation of a valved stent into the native mitral valve annulus. A valved stent has to provide safe and secure fixation within the high pressure system of the left heart. One of the main challenges in the development of such a valved stent is the complex anatomy of the mitral valve, with no clearly defined structures for device anchorage. Our group has developed a self-expanding nitinolvalved stent for transapical implantation in the beating heart. During the development process of thevalved stent, different design iterations were conducted to decrease the risk of paravalvular leakages, to enhance the reproducibility and to improve the overall stent performance. This article reviews the major milestones passedin the development process of our mitral valved stent and advances achieved withinthe last years. Multiple design iterations lead to a prototype providing secure stent deployment, hig h reproducibility, low paravalvular leakages and only mild stent deformation in the beating heart. In future, further long-term in vivo trials have to be conducted before attempting the step towards clinical application of this novel device.


beating heart; mitral; off-pump; transcatheter; valved stent

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