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J Psychosom Res. 2014 Jan;76(1):75-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.10.013. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Before the onset of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, the presence of multiple non-bladder syndromes is strongly associated with a history of multiple surgeries.

Author information

  • 1Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States. Electronic address: jwarren@medicine.umaryland.edu.
  • 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States.
  • 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, United States.
  • 4Departments of Anesthesiology and Neurology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, United States.
  • 5Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States; The Prevention and Research Center, Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, United States.
  • 6Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States.
  • 7Departments of Anesthesiology and Medicine, University of Michigan School of Medicine, United States.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Certain functional somatic syndromes (FSSs) such as fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome are accompanied by diffuse pain amplification. Women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) have numerous FSSs, as well as other non-bladder syndromes (NBSs) that are linked to the FSSs. They also report multiple surgeries. Since pain is a common indication for surgery, we tested the hypothesis that NBSs were associated with surgeries.

METHODS:

We interviewed 312 incident IC/BPS cases and controls on NBSs and number of surgeries before the index date (for cases, IC/BPS onset date). Poisson and logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, race, educational level, and menopause.

RESULTS:

Number of surgeries increased with number of NBSs in both cases and controls whether chronic pelvic pain (CPP), the only NBS generally accepted as an indication for surgery, was present or not. Logistic regression analysis showed that among cases CPP was the only individual NBS associated with a history of multiple surgeries, and then only modestly [odds ratio (OR) 1.9, confidence intervals (CI) 1.06, 3.2]. By far the strongest association was the number of NBSs. The OR for multiple surgeries increased with number of NBSs: for cases with 4-5 NBSs the OR was 14.1 (1.8, 113) and with 6-9 NBSs, 33.1 (3.9, 279). Controls had fewer syndromes and fewer surgeries and this linkage was less prominent.

CONCLUSION:

Among IC/BPS cases, the number of NBSs was strongly correlated with the number of surgeries. Understanding temporal relationships will be necessary to explore causal linkages and may modify surgical practice.

© 2013.

KEYWORDS:

Bladder pain; Functional somatic syndromes; Interstitial cystitis; Surgeries

PMID:
24360145
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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