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Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2014 Feb 15;157(3-4):175-81. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.11.003. Epub 2013 Nov 23.

Retinoic acid induces apoptosis in activated canine neutrophils.

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  • 1Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N5B4, Canada.
  • 2Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N5B4, Canada. Electronic address:


Activated neutrophils live longer, produce toxic metabolites and cause considerable tissue injury, which is central to the pathogenesis of many inflammatory conditions. Retinoids are a class of lipophilic compounds with anti-inflammatory effects. We examined the effect of retinoic acid on apoptosis in normal and activated neutrophils. Our results showed that treatment with 1 μg/ml Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 12 and 36 h delayed the spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis compared to untreated cells. But exposure of LPS-treated cells to retinoic acid (1 and 5 μM) abolished the inhibitory effects of LPS on neutrophil apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner based on annexin V staining, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, light and electron microscopy. These results show that retinoic acid increases apoptosis in activated canine neutrophils and this effect could enhance the resolution of inflammation in vivo.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Annexin-V; Apoptosis; Electron microscopy; Retinoic acid; TUNEL

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