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Addict Behav. 2014 Mar;39(3):660-8. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.11.019. Epub 2013 Dec 1.

Who benefits from extended continuing care for cocaine dependence?

Author information

  • 1University of Pennsylvania, 3440 Market Street, Suite 370, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Philadelphia VAMC, University and Baltimore Avenues, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address: jimrache@mail.med.upenn.edu.
  • 2University of Pennsylvania, 3440 Market Street, Suite 370, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
  • 3Philadelphia VAMC, University and Baltimore Avenues, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Abstract

The goal of this study was to determine which cocaine dependent patients engaged in an intensive outpatient program (IOP) were most likely to benefit from extended continuing care (24 months). Participants (N=321) were randomized to: IOP treatment as usual (TAU), TAU plus Telephone Monitoring and Counseling (TMC), or TAU plus TMC plus incentives for session attendance (TMC+). Potential moderators examined were gender, stay in a controlled environment prior to IOP, number of prior drug treatments, and seven measures of progress toward IOP goals. Outcomes were: (1) abstinence from all drugs and heavy alcohol use, and (2) cocaine urine toxicology. Follow-ups were conducted at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months post-baseline. Results indicated that there were significant effects favoring TMC+ over TAU on the cocaine urine toxicology outcome for participants in a controlled environment prior to IOP and for those with no days of depression early in IOP. Trends were obtained favoring TMC over TAU for those in a controlled environment (cocaine urine toxicology outcome) or with high family/social problem severity (abstinence composite outcome), and TMC+ over TAU for those with high family/social problem severity or high self-efficacy (cocaine urine toxicology outcome). None of the other potential moderator effects examined reached the level of a trend. These results generally do not suggest that patients with greater problem severity or poorer performance early in treatment on the measures considered in this report will benefit to a greater degree from extended continuing care.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Adaptive treatment; Cocaine dependence; Continuing care; Incentives; Moderators

PMID:
24355401
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3925615
Free PMC Article
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