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PLoS One. 2013 Dec 10;8(12):e81799. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081799. eCollection 2013.

Decreased galectin-9 and increased Tim-3 expression are related to poor prognosis in gastric cancer.

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  • 1Division of Clinical Epidemiology, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Galectin-9 (Gal-9) induces adhesion and aggregation of certain cell types and inhibits the metastasis of tumor cells. T-cell immunoglobulin-and mucin domain-3-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) plays a pivotal role in immune regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate Gal-9 and TIM-3 alterations in gastric cancer and their prognostic values.

METHODS:

Gal-9 and Tim-3 expression was evaluated using a tissue microarray immunohistochemistry method in 305 gastric cancers, of which 84 had paired adjacent normal samples. Cell lines SGC-7901, BGC-823, MGC-803, MKN45 and GES-1 were also stained. Correlations were analyzed between expression levels of Gal-9 and Tim-3 protein and tumor parameters or clinical outcomes.

RESULTS:

Gal-9 and Tim-3 stained positive on tumor cells in 86.2% (263/305), and 60.0% (183/305) patients with gastric cancer, respectively. Gal-9 expression was significantly higher in cancer than in normal mucosa (P<0.001). Reduced Gal-9 expression was associated with lymph-vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and worse TNM staging (P = 0.034, P = 0.009, P = 0.002 and P = 0.043, respectively). In contrast, Tim-3 expression was significantly lower in cancer than in control mucosa (P<0.001). Patients with lymph-vascular invasion had higher expression levels of Tim-3 (P<0.001). Moreover, multivariate analysis shows that both high Gal-9 expression and low Tim-3 expression were significantly associated with long overall survival (P = 0.002, P = 0.010, respectively); the combination of Gal-9 and Tim-3 expression was an independent prognostic predictor for patients with gastric cancer (RR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.20-0.93). H.pylori infection status was not associated with Gal-9 and Tim-3 expression (P = 0.102, P = 0.565).

CONCLUSION:

The results suggest that expression of Gal-9 and Tim-3 in tumor cells may be a potential, independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. Gal-9 and TIM-3 may play an important part in the gastric carcinogenesis.

PMID:
24339967
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3858245
Free PMC Article

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