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J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2015 Sep;70(5):673-81. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbt125. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

Sleep Architecture and Mental Health Among Community-Dwelling Older Men.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic of UPMC, Pennsylvania. Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • 3Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla. VA Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health (CESAMH), San Diego, California.
  • 4Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.
  • 5Division of Geriatrics and Aging, Columbia University, New York.
  • 6Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
  • 7Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 8Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco.
  • 9Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. jcauley@edc.pitt.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the association of mood and anxiety symptoms with sleep architecture (the distribution of sleep stages) in community-dwelling older men.

METHOD:

We used in-home unattended polysomnography to measure sleep architecture in older men. Men were categorized into 4 mental health categories: (a) significant depressive symptoms only (DEP+ only, Geriatric Depression Scale ≥ 6), (b) significant anxiety symptoms only (ANX+ only, Goldberg Anxiety Scale ≥ 5), (c) significant depressive and anxiety symptoms (DEP+/ANX+), or (d) no significant depressive or anxiety symptoms (DEP-/ANX-).

RESULTS:

Compared with men without clinically significant symptomology, men with depressive symptoms spent a higher percentage of time in Stage 2 sleep (65.42% DEP+ only vs 62.47% DEP-/ANX-, p = .003) and a lower percentage of time in rapid eye movement sleep (17.05% DEP+ only vs 19.44% DEP-/ANX-, p = .0005). These differences persisted after adjustment for demographic/lifestyle characteristics, medical conditions, medications, and sleep disturbances, and after excluding participants using psychotropic medications. The sleep architecture of ANX+ or DEP+/ANX+ men did not differ from asymptomatic men.

DISCUSSION:

Depressed mood in older adults may be associated with accelerated age-related changes in sleep architecture. Longitudinal community-based studies using diagnostic measures are needed to further clarify relationships among common mental disorders, aging, and sleep.

© The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Anxiety; Depression; Epidemiology; Sleep architecture

PMID:
24326077
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4553710
[Available on 2016-09-01]
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