Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2015 Sep;70(5):673-81. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbt125. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

Sleep Architecture and Mental Health Among Community-Dwelling Older Men.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic of UPMC, Pennsylvania. Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • 3Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla. VA Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health (CESAMH), San Diego, California.
  • 4Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.
  • 5Division of Geriatrics and Aging, Columbia University, New York.
  • 6Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
  • 7Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 8Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco.
  • 9Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.



To investigate the association of mood and anxiety symptoms with sleep architecture (the distribution of sleep stages) in community-dwelling older men.


We used in-home unattended polysomnography to measure sleep architecture in older men. Men were categorized into 4 mental health categories: (a) significant depressive symptoms only (DEP+ only, Geriatric Depression Scale ≥ 6), (b) significant anxiety symptoms only (ANX+ only, Goldberg Anxiety Scale ≥ 5), (c) significant depressive and anxiety symptoms (DEP+/ANX+), or (d) no significant depressive or anxiety symptoms (DEP-/ANX-).


Compared with men without clinically significant symptomology, men with depressive symptoms spent a higher percentage of time in Stage 2 sleep (65.42% DEP+ only vs 62.47% DEP-/ANX-, p = .003) and a lower percentage of time in rapid eye movement sleep (17.05% DEP+ only vs 19.44% DEP-/ANX-, p = .0005). These differences persisted after adjustment for demographic/lifestyle characteristics, medical conditions, medications, and sleep disturbances, and after excluding participants using psychotropic medications. The sleep architecture of ANX+ or DEP+/ANX+ men did not differ from asymptomatic men.


Depressed mood in older adults may be associated with accelerated age-related changes in sleep architecture. Longitudinal community-based studies using diagnostic measures are needed to further clarify relationships among common mental disorders, aging, and sleep.

© The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


Aging; Anxiety; Depression; Epidemiology; Sleep architecture

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Available on 2016-09-01]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk