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Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Jun;16(6):641-6. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt199. Epub 2013 Dec 9.

Sociodemographic correlates of exclusive and concurrent use of smokeless and smoked tobacco products among Nigerian men.

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  • 1Department of Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa;



This study sought to determine the sociodemographic correlates of exclusive and concurrent use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) and smoking (i.e., dual use) and to explore the association between SLT use and the amount of cigarettes smoked per day.


Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of Nigerian men aged 15-59 years (N = 15,453) who participated in the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). The NDHS used an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data on participants' sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco use status. Taking account of the multistage sampling used in the NDHS, data analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, and multivariable adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis.


Of the respondents, 12.2% (n = 1,842) were tobacco users, out of which 24.5% (n = 477) were exclusive SLT users, 69% (n = 1,236) were exclusive smokers, and 6.5% (n = 129) were dual users. Both SLT use and smoking were most prevalent among the Igbo ethnic group and among the least educated men. SLT use was most prevalent among those in the southeast (9.75%) and north-central (7.71%) regions, where smoking was also common. The number of cigarettes smoked per day was not significantly different among dual users when compared with exclusive smokers (7.3 vs. 5.6; p = .088). Dual users were also more likely to self-identify as traditionalists (RRR = 6.03; 95% CI = 2.96-12.28) compared with self-identifying as practicing Islam or Christianity.


There are distinctive ethnic and regional differences in tobacco use patterns among Nigerian men, and SLT use was not associated with reduced smoking intensity among dual users.

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