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Autoimmune Dis. 2013;2013:467808. doi: 10.1155/2013/467808. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

Updates on morphea: role of vascular injury and advances in treatment.

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  • 1The Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.


Morphea and systemic sclerosis are fibrosing disorders of the skin that share common inflammatory and immunologic pathways that are responsible for the vascular changes, increased collagen production, and extracellular matrix proliferation seen in both conditions. Recent advances in molecular biology techniques have furthered our knowledge of the potential underlying pathogenic mechanisms and offer new and provocative areas of research for novel diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on the role of vascular injury in the development of morphea, the use of ultrasonography as a diagnostic modality, and well-established and newly proposed treatments.

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