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Trends Immunol. 2014 Feb;35(2):79-87. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2013.10.012. Epub 2013 Dec 6.

Innate antiviral signalling in the central nervous system.

Author information

  • 1School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. Electronic address: cartymi@tcd.ie.
  • 2Department of Biomedicine, University of Aarhus, The Bartholin Building, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; Aarhus Research Center for Innate Immunology, University of Aarhus, The Bartholin Building, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
  • 3School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. Electronic address: agbowie@tcd.ie.

Abstract

The innate immune system mediates protection against neurotropic viruses capable of infecting the central nervous system (CNS). Neurotropic viruses include herpes simplex virus (HSV), West Nile virus (WNV), rabies virus, La Crosse virus, and poliovirus. Viral infection triggers activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) like receptors (RLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), and cytosolic DNA sensors. Although originally characterised in peripheral immune cells, emerging evidence points to important roles for these PRRs in cells of the CNS. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these PRRs provide protection against neurotropic viruses, and discuss instances in which these responses become detrimental and cause immunopathology in the CNS.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Toll-like receptors; antiviral immunity; central nervous system; retinoic acid-inducible gene 1; stimulator of interferon genes

PMID:
24316012
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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