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Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Feb;28(2):83-8. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a single-centre experience and summary of existing studies.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most prevalent bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis. Although studies from Europe have reported significant rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, there are limited SBP-specific data from centres in North America.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the prevalence of, predictors for and clinical impact of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant SBP at a Canadian tertiary care centre, and to summarize the data in the context of the existing literature.

METHODS:

SBP patients treated with both antibiotics and albumin therapy at a Canadian tertiary care hospital between 2003 and 2011 were retrospectively identified. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of third-generation cephalosporin resistance and mortality.

RESULTS:

In 192 patients, 25% of infections were nosocomial. Forty per cent (77 of 192) of infections were culture positive; of these, 19% (15 of 77) were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The prevalence of cephalosporin resistance was 8% with community-acquired infections, 17% with health care-associated infections and 41% with nosocomial acquisition. Nosocomial acquisition of infection was the only predictor of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (OR 4.0 [95% CI 1.04 to 15.2]). Thirty-day mortality censored for liver transplantation was 27% (50 of 184). In the 77 culture-positive patients, resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (OR 5.3 [1.3 to 22]) and the Model for End-stage Live Disease score (OR 1.14 [1.04 to 1.24]) were independent predictors of 30-day mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant SBP is a common diagnosis and has an effect on clinical outcomes. In an attempt to reduce the mortality associated with resistance to empirical therapy, high-risk subgroups should receive broader empirical antibiotic coverage.

PMID:
24288693
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4071894
Free PMC Article
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