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Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Feb;28(2):83-8. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a single-centre experience and summary of existing studies.



Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most prevalent bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis. Although studies from Europe have reported significant rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, there are limited SBP-specific data from centres in North America.


To evaluate the prevalence of, predictors for and clinical impact of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant SBP at a Canadian tertiary care centre, and to summarize the data in the context of the existing literature.


SBP patients treated with both antibiotics and albumin therapy at a Canadian tertiary care hospital between 2003 and 2011 were retrospectively identified. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of third-generation cephalosporin resistance and mortality.


In 192 patients, 25% of infections were nosocomial. Forty per cent (77 of 192) of infections were culture positive; of these, 19% (15 of 77) were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The prevalence of cephalosporin resistance was 8% with community-acquired infections, 17% with health care-associated infections and 41% with nosocomial acquisition. Nosocomial acquisition of infection was the only predictor of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (OR 4.0 [95% CI 1.04 to 15.2]). Thirty-day mortality censored for liver transplantation was 27% (50 of 184). In the 77 culture-positive patients, resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (OR 5.3 [1.3 to 22]) and the Model for End-stage Live Disease score (OR 1.14 [1.04 to 1.24]) were independent predictors of 30-day mortality.


Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant SBP is a common diagnosis and has an effect on clinical outcomes. In an attempt to reduce the mortality associated with resistance to empirical therapy, high-risk subgroups should receive broader empirical antibiotic coverage.

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