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Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014 May;56(5):498-502. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12346. Epub 2013 Nov 23.

Typical and atypical phenotypes of PNPO deficiency with elevated CSF and plasma pyridoxamine on treatment.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.


Pyridox(am)ine phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency causes severe early infantile epileptic encephalopathy and has been characterized as responding to pyridoxal-5'-phosphate but not to pyridoxine. Two males with PNPO deficiency and novel PNPO mutations are reported and their clinical, metabolic, and video-electroencephalographic (EEG) findings described. The first child showed electro-clinical responses to pyridoxine and deterioration when pyridoxine was withheld. At last review, he has well-controlled epilepsy with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate monotherapy and an autism spectrum disorder. The second child had a perinatal middle cerebral artery infarct and a myoclonic encephalopathy. He failed to respond to pyridoxine but responded well to pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. At the age of 21 months he has global developmental delay and hemiparesis but is seizure-free with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate monotherapy. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxamine levels were increased in both children during treatment with pyridoxine or pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. These observations indicate that differential responses to pyridoxine and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate treatment cannot be relied upon to diagnose PNPO deficiency.

© 2013 Mac Keith Press.

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