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Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013 Oct;84(10):1041-5.

Urinary tract calculi in military aviators.

Author information

  • 1Naval Aerospace Medical Institute, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL, USA. william.porter2@us.army.mil



Urinary tract calculi are a common affliction in the United States and estimates of the adult lifetime risk of developing this condition range from 10 to 15%. Although highly variable, the clinical presentation of someone afflicted with urinary tract calculi typically involves varying degrees of pain, nausea, hematuria, and dysuria. Current disease, as well as a history of urinary tract calculi, is potentially disqualifying for aviation duties in the United States military as well as for commercial aviators.


Utilizing population based data from the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database (DMED), the current descriptive epidemiology of urinary tract calculi among military aviators was examined.


Based on the data collected, the overall annual incidence density of urinary tract calculi for DoD personnel is approximately 4.8 events/1000 PY. The overall annual incidence density of urinary tract calculi is slightly lower in aviators as compared to the nonaviator DoD population (4.4 events/1000 PY vs. 4.8 events/1000 PY).


Even though in-flight incapacitation from this malady is believed to be exceedingly rare, the incidence of urinary tract stones and their related morbidity should remain an important area of clinical focus.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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