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Rhinology. 2013 Dec;51(4):315-22. doi: 10.4193/Rhin13.045.

Inflammasome gene expression alterations in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated chronic rhinosinusitis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The role of inflammasomes in chronic inflammation has been the subject of intense research in recent years. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), a persistent inflammatory disease, continues to be investigated hoping that a clearer pathophysiologic description will guide discovery of future treatment modalities. This study investigates the role of inflammasome complexes in CRS patients with Staphylococcus aureus biofilm infection, a key culprit associated with disease severity and recalcitrance.

METHODOLOGY:

Sinonasal tissue samples were collected from CRS patients with (P+) and without (P-) polyps and controls. S. aureus biofilm status was obtained using fluorescence in situ hybridization and classified as biofilm positive (B+) or negative (B-). RNA was analysed using a Human Inflammasome PCR array, profiling the expression of 84 genes involved in inflammasome function.

RESULTS:

Sixteen samples were obtained: 5 B+P+, 5 B-P- and 6 controls. Comparing B+P+ vs. controls showed the greatest number of differentially expressed genes. In particular, Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) was consistently and significantly up-regulated in the B+P+ vs. B-P- and controls. In contrast, when comparing the B-P- vs. controls, no genes showed significant changes.

CONCLUSION:

Our results indicate the involvement of inflammasome complexes and their signalling pathways in CRS patients with polyps and S. aureus biofilms. In particular, AIM2, activated by intracellular double-stranded DNA, is up-regulated in this group, implying that S. aureus may play a role in intracellular triggering of the inflammasome response. Studies with further patient stratification and assessing corresponding protein expression are needed to further characterize the role of inflammasomes in CRS.

PMID:
24260763
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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