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World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2013 Nov 16;5(11):527-33. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v5.i11.527.

Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Author information

  • 1Somchai Amornyotin, Department of Anesthesiology and Siriraj Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Center, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.

Abstract

Sedation practices for gastrointestinal endoscopic (GIE) procedures vary widely in different countries depending on health system regulations and local circumstances. The goal of procedural sedation is the safe and effective control of pain and anxiety, as well as to provide an appropriate degree of memory loss or decreased awareness. Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy, once occurred, can lead to significant morbidity and occasional mortality in patients. The risk factors of these complications include the type, dose and mode of administration of sedative agents, as well as the patient's age and underlying medical diseases. Complications attributed to moderate and deep sedation levels are more often associated with cardiovascular and respiratory systems. However, sedation-related complications during GIE procedures are commonly transient and of a mild degree. The risk for these complications while providing any level of sedation is greatest when caring for patients already medically compromised. Significant unwanted complications can generally be prevented by careful pre-procedure assessment and preparation, appropriate monitoring and support, as well as post-procedure management. Additionally, physicians must be prepared to manage these complications. This article will review sedation-related complications during moderate and deep sedation for GIE procedures and also address their appropriate management.

KEYWORDS:

Complication; Endoscopy; Gastrointestinal; Sedation

PMID:
24255744
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3831194
Free PMC Article
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