Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(4):614-9. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.4.05.

Prevalence and correlates of zinc deficiency in pregnant Vietnamese women in Ho Chi Minh City.

Author information

  • 1Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Hikarigaoka 1, Fukushima City, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.


in English, Chinese


Although Vietnam is a region with a plant-based diet that has a high zinc deficiency, epidemiological data showing how this affects pregnant women are limited. This study explores the prevalence of zinc deficiency and possible correlates in pregnant Vietnamese women in Ho Chi Minh City.


This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a general hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. All pregnant women who came to their first antenatal care visit from November 2011 to June 2012 were recruited. Those taking a vitamin and/or mineral supplement were excluded. Serum zinc concentrations, determined by a standard colorimetric method, of 10.7 μmol/L-17.5 μmol/L (70.0 g/dL-114 g/dL) were classified as normal and under 10.7 μmol/L (70.0 g/dL) as zinc deficient.


In total, 254 pregnant women were invited and 107 (42%) participated. The mean age of participants was 29 years, and mean gestational age was 10 weeks. Median zinc concentration in serum was 13.6 μmol/L, and the prevalence of zinc deficiency was 29% (95% CI=21%-39%). The daily intake of a milk product supplement was the only significant correlate of zinc deficiency of the items investigated (adjusted OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.16-0.99, p=0.049).


This is the first study reporting that more than 25% of pregnant Vietnamese women in Ho Chi Minh City are zinc deficient. Further academic and clinical input is needed to confirm the scale of this neglected issue and to investigate the potential of milk product supplementation in this population.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HEC Press, Healthy Eating Club PTY LTD
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk