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Addict Behav. 2014 Feb;39(2):480-6. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.020. Epub 2013 Oct 17.

A cross-lagged panel model examining protective behavioral strategies: are types of strategies differentially related to alcohol use and consequences?

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  • 1Loyola Marymount University, 1 LMU Drive, Suite 4700, Los Angeles, CA 90045, USA. Electronic address: lucy.napper@lmu.edu.


Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are skills that can be used to reduce the risk of alcohol-related negative consequences. Studies have shown that, in general, PBS are related to less alcohol consumption and fewer negative consequences; however, other studies have suggested that not all types of PBS (e.g., stopping/limiting drinking [SLD], manner of drinking [MOD] and serious harm reduction [SHR]) are equally effective at reducing alcohol risk. In addition, few studies have explored the longitudinal relationships among PBS, alcohol use and consequences. Using a sample of heavy drinking college students (N=338), the current study examined PBS use, alcohol consumption and consequences across two time points three months apart. Cross-lagged panel models revealed that MOD predicted a reduction in alcohol use and negative consequences. SHR was longitudinally related to fewer negative consequences, but unrelated to alcohol use. SLD was not associated with drinking or consequences at follow-up. These results highlight the need for future research to examine the effects of different types of PBS and have implications for alcohol intervention programs that incorporate PBS skills training.

© 2013.


Alcohol; College students; Consequences; Protective behavioral strategies

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