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Dev Neuropsychol. 2013;38(8):550-66. doi: 10.1080/87565641.2012.718817.

Auditory event-related potentials measured in kindergarten predict later reading problems at school age.

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  • 1a Department of Psychology , University of Jyväskylä , Jyväskylä , Finland.


Identifying children at risk for reading problems or dyslexia at kindergarten age could improve support for beginning readers. Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured for temporally complex pseudowords and corresponding non-speech stimuli from 6.5-year-old children who participated in behavioral literacy tests again at 9 years in the second grade. Children who had reading problems at school age had larger N250 responses to speech and non-speech stimuli particularly at the left hemisphere. The brain responses also correlated with reading skills. The results suggest that atypical auditory and speech processing are a neural-level risk factor for future reading problems. [Supplementary material is available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Developmental Neuropsychology for the following free supplemental resources: Sound files used in the experiments. Three speech sounds and corresponding non-speech sounds with short, intermediate, and long gaps].

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