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Surg Clin North Am. 2013 Dec;93(6):1293-307. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2013.09.002.

A surgeons' guide to renal transplant immunopathology, immunology, and immunosuppression.

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  • 1Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, 6565 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:


The response to allografting involves adaptive and innate immune mechanisms. In the adaptive system, activated T cells differentiate to cytotoxic effectors that attack the graft and trigger B cells to differentiation to plasma cells that produce anti-HLA antibodies. The innate immune system recognizes antigens in a non-specific manner and recruits immune cells to the graft through the productions of chemotactic factors, and activation of cytokines and the complement cascade. In the kidney the tubules and the endothelium are the targets of the rejection response. Immune suppression is effective in modulating the adaptive immune system effect on graft histology.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Adaptive immune responses; Biopsy; Graft rejection; Immune suppression

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