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ISME J. 2014 Apr;8(4):854-66. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2013.204. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

Exploring the uncultured microeukaryote majority in the oceans: reevaluation of ribogroups within stramenopiles.

Author information

  • 1Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
  • 21] Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain [2] Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
  • 3Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, ME, USA.
  • 4Station Biologique de Roscoff, Roscoff, France.

Abstract

Molecular surveys in planktonic marine systems have unveiled a large novel diversity of small protists. A large part of this diversity belongs to basal heterotrophic stramenopiles and is distributed in a set of polyphyletic ribogroups (described from rDNA sequences) collectively named as MAST (MArine STramenopiles). In the few groups investigated, MAST cells are globally distributed and abundant bacterial grazers, therefore having a putatively large impact on marine ecosystem functioning. The main aim of this study is to reevaluate the MAST ribogroups described so far and to determine whether additional groups can be found. For this purpose, we used traditional and state-of-the-art molecular tools, combining 18S rDNA sequences from publicly available clone libraries, single amplified genomes (SAGs) of planktonic protists, and a pyrosequencing survey from coastal waters and sediments. Our analysis indicated a final set of 18 MAST groups plus 5 new ribogroups within Ochrophyta (named as MOCH). The MAST ribogroups were then analyzed in more detail. Seven were typical of anoxic systems and one of oxic sediments. The rest were clearly members of oxic marine picoplankton. We characterized the genetic diversity within each MAST group and defined subclades for the more diverse (46 subclades in 8 groups). The analyses of sequences within subclades revealed further ecological specializations. Our data provide a renovated framework for phylogenetic classification of the numerous MAST ribogroups and support the notion of a tight link between phylogeny and ecological distribution. These diverse and largely uncultured protists are widespread and ecologically relevant members of marine microbial assemblages.

PMID:
24196325
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3960543
[Available on 2015/4/1]
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