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Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Nov;6(11):1242-50. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-13-0203.

Durable antibody responses following one dose of the bivalent human papillomavirus L1 virus-like particle vaccine in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial.

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  • 1Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rm 6-E224, MSC 9767, Bethesda, MD 20892. safaeianm@mail.nih.gov.

Abstract

The Costa Rica HPV16/18 Vaccine Trial (CVT) showed that four-year vaccine efficacy against 12-month HPV16/18 persistent infection was similarly high among women who received one, two, or the recommended three doses of the bivalent HPV16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Live-attenuated viral vaccines, but not simple-subunit vaccines, usually induce durable lifelong antibody responses after a single dose. It is unclear whether noninfectious VLP vaccines behave more like live-virus or simple-subunit vaccines in this regard. To explore the likelihood that efficacy will persist longer term, we investigated the magnitude and durability of antibodies to this vaccine by measuring HPV16- and HPV18-specific antibodies by VLP-ELISA using serum from enrollment, vaccination, and annual visits through four years in four vaccinated groups; one-dose (n = 78), two-doses separated by one month (n = 140), two doses separated by six months (n = 52), and three scheduled doses (n = 120, randomly selected). We also tested enrollment sera from n = 113 HPV16- or HPV18 L1-seropositive women prevaccination, presumably from natural infection. At four years, 100% of women in all groups remained HPV16/18 seropositive; both HPV16/18 geometric mean titers (GMT) among the extended two-dose group were non-inferior to the three-dose group, and ELISA titers were highly correlated with neutralization titers in all groups. Compared with the natural infection group, HPV16/18 GMTs were, respectively, at least 24 and 14 times higher among the two-dose and 9 and 5 times higher among one-dose vaccinees. Antibody levels following one-dose remained stable from month 6 through month 48. Results raise the possibility that even a single dose of HPV VLPs will induce long-term protection.

©2013 AACR.

PMID:
24189371
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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