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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013 Dec;98:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.09.039. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Lead resistant bacteria: lead resistance mechanisms, their applications in lead bioremediation and biomonitoring.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology, Goa University, Laboratory of Bacterial Genetics and Environmental Biotechnology, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206, India. Electronic address: milindnaik4@gmail.com.


Lead (Pb) is non-bioessential, persistent and hazardous heavy metal pollutant of environmental concern. Bioremediation has become a potential alternative to the existing technologies for the removal and/or recovery of toxic lead from waste waters before releasing it into natural water bodies for environmental safety. To our best knowledge, this is a first review presenting different mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria to resist high levels of lead and their applications in cost effective and eco-friendly ways of lead bioremediation and biomonitoring. Various lead resistant mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria includes efflux mechanism, extracellular sequestration, biosorption, precipitation, alteration in cell morphology, enhanced siderophore production and intracellular lead bioaccumulation.

© 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Bacteria; Biomonitoring; Bioremediation; Lead resistance

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