Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
Genet Med. 2014 Apr;16(4):318-28. doi: 10.1038/gim.2013.144. Epub 2013 Oct 17.

22q13.2q13.32 genomic regions associated with severity of speech delay, developmental delay, and physical features in Phelan-McDermid syndrome.

Author information

  • 1Greenwood Genetic Center, Greenwood, South Carolina, USA.
  • 2Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.
  • 31] Greenwood Genetic Center, Greenwood, South Carolina, USA [2] Deceased.
  • 4Hayward Genetics Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.



Phelan-McDermid syndrome is a developmental disability syndrome with varying deletions of 22q13 and varying clinical severity. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition to loss of the telomeric gene SHANK3, specific genomic regions within 22q13 are associated with important clinical features.


We used a customized oligo array comparative genomic hybridization of 22q12.3-terminus to obtain deletion breakpoints in a cohort of 70 patients with terminal 22q13 deletions. We used association and receiver operating characteristic statistical methods in a novel manner and also incorporated protein interaction networks to identify 22q13 genomic locations and genes associated with clinical features.


Specific genomic regions and candidate genes within 22q13.2q13.32 were associated with severity of speech/language delay, neonatal hypotonia, delayed age at walking, hair-pulling behaviors, male genital anomalies, dysplastic toenails, large/fleshy hands, macrocephaly, short and tall stature, facial asymmetry, and atypical reflexes. We also found regions suggestive of a negative association with autism spectrum disorders.


This work advances the field of research beyond the observation of a correlation between deletion size and phenotype and identifies candidate 22q13 loci, and in some cases specific genes, associated with singular clinical features observed in Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Our statistical approach may be useful in genotype-phenotype analyses for other microdeletion or microduplication syndromes.

[PubMed - in process]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk