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Diabetes Technol Ther. 2014 Jan;16(1):33-40. doi: 10.1089/dia.2013.0182. Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Improved metabolic control in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes: a nationwide prospective 12-year time trends analysis.

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  • 11 Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University Medical Center-University Children's Hospital , Ljubljana, Slovenia .



This study estimated temporal trends of metabolic control over 12 years in a national cohort of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.


Data from the prospective childhood-onset diabetes register, which included 886 case subjects from 0 to 17.99 years of age at diagnosis and at least 1 year of follow-up until the age of 22.99 years, were analyzed using multivariable linear and logistic regression models in the observational period between 2000 and 2011.


Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) significantly decreased over 12 years, from 78 mmol/mol (interquartile range [IQR], 68-88 mmol/mol) (9.26% [IQR, 8.41-10.24%]) in the year 2000 to 61 mmol/mol (IQR, 55-67 mmol/mol) (7.75% [IQR, 7.20-8.30%]) in the year 2011 (P<0.001). HbA1c was significantly associated with age, treatment modality, and duration of diabetes (P<0.001), with females having on average 1.02% higher HbA1c (P=0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005-1.035). The overall use of insulin pumps was 74%. The incidence rate of severe acute complications was low: 1.07 per 100 patient-years for severe diabetic ketoacidosis (95% CI 0.81-1.40) and 1.21 per 100 patient-years for severe (requiring intravenous or intramuscular therapy) hypoglycemia (95% CI 0.81-1.40).


The metabolic control of the entire nationwide pediatric type 1 diabetes population significantly improved during the 12-year observational period with a low rate of severe acute complications events. The improvement was associated with the treatment modality. Additional efforts and solutions are necessary to further improve metabolic control and the quality of life of young people with type 1 diabetes.

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