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J Sep Sci. 2013 Dec;36(23):3688-95. doi: 10.1002/jssc.201300702.

Performance of zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction LC for the determination of iodinated X-ray contrast agents.

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  • 1Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Tarragona, Spain.


This study compares the separation performance of a group of iodinated X-ray contrast media on four different columns. The first three were two stationary phases (SPs) modified with C18 and a polar-embedded SP (polar amide group bonded to an alkyl chain), all of which worked under RP-LC mode. The fourth was a zwitterionic sulphoalkylbetaine SP, working under the hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC) mode. After the optimisation of the different parameters, the zwitterionic column displayed the best separation, which also overcomes the problems encountered when these analytes were separated under RP-LC. Moreover, when HILIC is coupled to MS/MS, sensitivity is enhanced. However, when sewage samples were analysed by SPE followed by the optimal HILIC-MS/MS, the sensitivity of the method was affected due to the high matrix effect, which had to be solved by dilution of the extract. Finally, the method was preliminarily validated with sewage and the figures of merit were comparable to those of the SPE-RP-LC-MS/MS.

© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Hydrophilic interaction LC; Iodinated X-ray contrast media; MS/MS; Sewage; Zwitterionic columns

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