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J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2015 Jun;48(3):256-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jmii.2013.08.013. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

Prevalence of and associated factors with chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Taiwan.

Author information

  • 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • 4Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • 5Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Tropic Medicine Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • 6Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address: idchen.tunchieh@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important issue for individuals who live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, the prevalence rate of CKD varies between countries.

METHODS:

The present study screened HIV-infected patients in a medical center and a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan from January 2008 to December 2012. CKD was defined as a urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g, and/or a protein ≥1 + on urine dipstick examination, and/or an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for 3 months. The prevalence rate and the analyzed associated factors of CKD were determined.

RESULTS:

Among 1639 HIV-infected patients, only 512 had adequate data to be enrolled in the study. Thirty-six (7.03%) of these patients had CKD, and 476 did not. In a univariate analysis, CKD was associated with an older age, a higher peak HIV RNA load, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, exposure to antiretroviral therapy, and cholesterol levels ≥240 mg/dL. Multivariate analysis revealed that DM, hypertension, and cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL were statistically significant factors.

CONCLUSION:

In Taiwan, the prevalence of CKD in HIV-infected patients was low (7.03%). The classical risk factors for CKD, such as DM, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, were demonstrated to be associated with CKD in Taiwanese HIV-infected patients.

Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic kidney disease; Human immunodeficiency virus; Prevalence

PMID:
24113068
[PubMed - in process]
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