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Curr Opin Immunol. 2013 Dec;25(6):769-74. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2013.09.002. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

Emerging antigens involved in allergic responses.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA. Electronic address:


New allergic diseases can 'emerge' because of exposure to a novel antigen, because the immune responsiveness of the subject changes, or because of a change in the behavior of the population. Novel antigens have entered the environment as new pests in the home (e.g., Asian lady beetle or stink bugs), in the diet (e.g., prebiotics or wheat isolates), or because of the spread of a biting arthropod (e.g., ticks). Over the last few years, a significant new disease has been identified, which has changed the paradigm for food allergy. Bites of the tick, Amblyomma americanum, are capable of inducing IgE antibodies to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which is associated with two novel forms of anaphylaxis. In a large area of the southeastern United States, the disease of delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meat is now common. This disease challenges many previous rules about food allergy and provides a striking model of an emerging allergic disease.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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