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Clin Geriatr Med. 2013 Nov;29(4):809-28. doi: 10.1016/j.cger.2013.07.006.

Emerging biomarkers in cognition.

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  • 1Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.


Knowledge of aging and dementia is rapidly evolving with the aim of identifying individuals in the earliest stages of disease processes. Biomarkers allow clinicians to show the presence of a pathologic process and resultant synapse dysfunction and neurodegeneration, even in the earliest stages. This article focuses on biomarkers for mild cognitive impairment caused by Alzheimer disease, structural magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography, and PET with dopamine ligands. Although these biomarkers are useful, several limitations exist. Several new biomarkers are emerging and a more biological characterization of underlying pathophysiologic spectra may become possible.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Alzheimer disease; Biomarkers; Dementia

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