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J Mot Behav. 2013;45(6):479-86. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2013.832136. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

The shoulder and elbow joints and right and left sides demonstrate similar joint position sense.

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  • 1a Department of Human Physiology , University of Oregon , Eugene.


Proper orientation of the shoulder and elbow is necessary for accurate and precise positioning of the hand. The authors' goal was to compare these joints with an active joint position sense task, while also taking into account the effects of joint flexion angle and arm dominance. Fifteen healthy subjects were asked to replicate presented joint angles with a single degree of freedom active positioning protocol. There were no significant differences in angular joint position sense errors with respect to joint (shoulder vs. elbow) and side (left vs. right). However, when considering linear positioning, errors were lower for the elbow, due to a shorter lever arm. Also, as flexion angles increased toward 90°, there was a consistent pattern of lower errors for both joints.

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