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Chemosphere. 2013 Nov;93(11):2883-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.005. Epub 2013 Sep 26.

Degradation of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) by metabolic cooperative activity of Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357and Rhodococcus imtechensis strain RKJ300.

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  • 1Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39-A, Chandigarh 160036, India.


2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is an insensitive explosive ingredient used by many defense agencies as a replacement for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. Although the biotransformation of DNAN under anaerobic condition has been reported, aerobic microbial degradation pathway has not been elucidated. An n-methyl-4-nitroaniline degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357 transformed DNAN into 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) as an end product. Interestingly, when strain FK357 was co-cultured with a 2,4-DNP degrading Rhodococcus imtechensis strain RKJ300, complete and high rate of DNAN degradation was observed with no accumulation of intermediates. Enzyme assay using cell extracts of strain FK357 demonstrated that O-demethylation reaction is the first step of DNAN degradation with formation of 2,4-DNP and formaldehyde as intermediates. Subsequently, 2,4-DNP was degraded by strain RKJ300 via the formation of hydride-Meisenheimer complex. The present study clearly demonstrates that complete degradation of DNAN occurs as a result of the metabolic cooperative activity of two members within a bacterial consortium.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN); 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP); Biodegradation; Co-culture; Hydride-Meisenheimer complex

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