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Metabolism. 2013 Dec;62(12):1779-87. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2013.07.006. Epub 2013 Sep 26.

Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects.

Author information

  • 1Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Boston University, 88 E. Newton St., Suite D4400, Boston, MA 02118.

Erratum in

  • Metabolism. 2014 Mar;63(3):e1.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

High fat, low carbohydrate (HFLC) diets have become popular tools for weight management. We sought to determine the effects of a HFLC diet compared to a low fat high carbohydrate (LFHC) diet on the change in weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in subjects with obesity.

METHODS:

Obese subjects (29.0-44.6 kg/m2) recruited from Boston Medical Center were randomized to a hypocaloric LFHC (n=26) or HFLC (n=29) diet for 12 weeks.

RESULTS:

The age range of subjects was 21-62 years. As a percentage of daily calories, the HFLC group consumed 33.5% protein, 56.0% fat and 9.6% carbohydrate and the LFHC group consumed 22.0% protein, 25.0% fat and 55.7% carbohydrate. The change in percent body weight, lean and fat mass, blood pressure, flow mediated dilation, hip:waist ratio, hemoglobin A1C, fasting insulin and glucose, and glucose and insulin response to a 2h oral glucose tolerance test did not differ (P>0.05) between diets after 12 weeks. The HFLC group had greater mean decreases in serum triglyceride (P=0.07), and hs-CRP (P=0.03), and greater mean increases in HDL cholesterol (P=0.004), and total adiponectin (P=0.045) relative to the LFHC. Secreted adipose tissue adiponectin or TNF-α did not differ after weight loss for either diet.

CONCLUSIONS:

Relative to the LFHC group, the HFLC group had greater improvements in blood lipids and systemic inflammation with similar changes in body weight and composition. This small-scale study suggests that HFLC diets may be more beneficial to cardiovascular health and inflammation in free-living obese adults compared to LFHC diets.

© 2013.

KEYWORDS:

AUC; BMI; Cardiovascular; DXA; ELISA; FMD; HDL; HFLC; HMW; HOMA-IR; HbA1C; Inflammation; LDL; LFHC; Macronutrients; OGTT; TNF-α; Weight loss; area under the curve; body mass index; dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; flow mediated dilation; hemoglobin A1C; high density lipoprotein; high fat low carbohydrate; high molecular weight; high sensitivity-C-reactive protein; homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; hs-CRP; low density lipoprotein; low fat high carbohydrate; oral glucose tolerance test; tumor necrosis factor-alpha

PMID:
24075505
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3845365
Free PMC Article
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