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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov;67(11):1169-74. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.164. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux and anti-reflux procedures among Polish children with gastrostomies: a 10-year nationwide analysis.

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  • 1Department of Pediatric Alergology, Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.



To analyse the approach to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the qualification criteria for anti-reflux (AR) procedures in Polish children fed via gastrostomy between 2000 and 2010.


An electronic questionnaire containing questions on the demographic and clinical data of patients with gastrostomies was distributed to six Polish centres of nutritional therapy. The portion pertaining to GER included data on clinical exponents, diagnostic procedures (pH-metry, pH-impedance, scintigraphy and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series) and AR.


In total, 348 children (M199/F149; age at gastrostomy 5.78±5.49 years) were included. Data on the diagnosis of GER and the AR criteria were available for 343 and 336 subjects, respectively. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed in 258/348 patients (74.1%), while surgery was performed in 80/348 patients (23%). The data from 10/348 (2.9%) cases were unavailable. At least one of the tests for GER was conducted in 177/343 (51.6%) of patients: pH-metry in 74/343 (21.6%), pH-impedance in 17/343 (5.0%), scintigraphy in 60/343 (17.5%) and upper GI series in 102/343 (29.7%). GER was reported in 114/343 cases (33.2%), and fundoplication was performed in 87 children (76.3% of patients with GER). The highest congruence between a positive test result and the decision to perform fundoplication was documented in cases of scintigraphy and upper GI series (P=0.00000 and P=0.00191, respectively). A significant increase in the prevalence of simultaneous gastrostomy and AR was observed over the decade analysed (r=0.8, P=0.009). This study revealed a centre-specific attitude towards the diagnosis of GER and the assessment of qualifications for fundoplication in Polish gastrostomy-fed children.


The unified diagnostic algorithm of GER and the universal qualification criteria for AR procedures need to be defined for gastrostomy-fed children.

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