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J Pediatr Urol. 2014 Feb;10(1):182-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.07.025. Epub 2013 Sep 8.

Evaluation of children with urinary tract infection--impact of the 2011 AAP guidelines on the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux using a historical series.

Author information

  • 1The Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address: kdsuson@gmail.com.
  • 2The Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.



To clarify the impact of the updated American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for the evaluation of children presenting with initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) on the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with normal renal sonograms.


Children with VUR followed between 2002 and 2004 were evaluated using criteria specified in the AAP guidelines. A total of 49 children (42 girls) who were 2-24 months of age at diagnosis of VUR made following initial febrile UTI were included.


40.8% of ultrasounds were abnormal. While children with abnormal ultrasounds were more likely to have scintigraphic evidence of renal damage than children with normal ultrasounds (50% vs 17%, p = 0.026), one third of the children with abnormal renal scans had normal RBUS. There was no statistically significant difference in diagnosis of grade 3 or higher VUR between groups (p = 0.136).


Most children in this series would not have been diagnosed with VUR after initial febrile UTI. More worrisome, 17.2% of children with normal ultrasound had renal injury identified on renal scanning, and 62.1% had grade 3 or higher VUR. These findings reinforce concerns that the new guidelines may miss or delay diagnosis of clinically significant VUR.

Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Imaging; Pediatrics; Urinary tract infections; Vesico-ureteral reflux

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