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Int Urol Nephrol. 2014 Mar;46(3):487-91. doi: 10.1007/s11255-013-0567-z. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Comparative outcomes of the tubularized incised plate and transverse island flap onlay techniques for the repair of proximal hypospadias.

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  • 1Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350005, Fujian, People's Republic of China.



The optimal management of proximal hypospadias remains uncertain. In this study, the surgical outcomes of tubularized incised plate repair (TIP) and transverse island flap (TVIF) onlay urethroplasty in boys with hypospadias were compared.


A total of 176 patients with proximal hypospadias underwent TIP (n = 83) or TVIF onlay repairs (n = 93) by a single surgeon and were evaluated retrospectively. No patient received a testosterone injection prior to surgery. A retrospective review of their medical records collected data regarding age at surgery, chordee, dorsal plication, hypospadias site, penoscrotal transposition, bifid scrotum, congenital hernia, undescended testis and any postoperative complications, including fistula, recurrent curvature, dehiscence, diverticulum, meatal stenosis and urethral stricture. The pediatric penile perception score (PPPS) was completed by parents to evaluate their perception of cosmetic outcomes.


There was no statistical difference in age or any of the anatomical and clinical features of hypospadias. The median follow-up duration was 22 months (range 12-48 months) and 25 months (14-51 months) for the TIP and TVIF onlay groups, respectively. The overall complication rate in the TVIF onlay group was 21.5% (20/93), which was higher than 18.1% (15/83) in the TIP group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.569). The most common complication was urethrocutaneous fistula, occurring in 9.6% (8/83) of the TIP group and 10.8% (10/93) of the TVIF onlay group. There were no significant differences in the rate of any complication and the overall PPPS between the two groups.


TIP and TVIF onlay are clinically equivalent for the repair of proximal hypospadias.

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