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J Dent. 2013 Dec;41(12):1251-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

Cytocompatibility of pure metals and experimental binary titanium alloys for implant materials.

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  • 1Department of Dental Materials and MRC for Biomineralization Disorders, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, South Korea. Electronic address:



This study was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of nine types of pure metal ingots (Ag, Al, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Nb, V, Zr) and 36 experimental titanium (Ti) alloys containing 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% of each alloying element.


The cell viabilities for each test group were compared with that of CP-Ti using the WST-1 test and agar overlay test.


The ranking of pure metal cytotoxicity from most potent to least potent was as follows: Cu>Al>Ag>V>Mn>Cr>Zr>Nb>Mo>CP-Ti. The mean cell viabilities for pure Cu, Al, Ag, V, and Mn were 21.6%, 25.3%, 31.7%, 31.7%, and 32.7%, respectively, which were significantly lower than that for the control group (p<0.05). The mean cell viabilities for pure Zr and Cr were 74.1% and 60.6%, respectively (p<0.05). Pure Mo and Nb demonstrated good biocompatibility with mean cell viabilities of 93.3% and 93.0%, respectively. The mean cell viabilities for all the Ti-based alloy groups were higher than 80% except for Ti-20 Nb (79.6%) and Ti-10 V (66.9%). The Ti-10 Nb alloy exhibited the highest cell viability (124.8%), which was higher than that of CP-Ti. Based on agar overlay test, pure Ag, Cr, Cu, Mn, and V were ranked as 'moderately cytotoxic', whereas the rest of the tested pure metals and all Ti alloys, except Ti-10 V (mild cytotoxicity), were ranked as 'noncytotoxic'.


The results obtained in this study can serve as a guide for the development of new Ti-based alloy implant systems.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Agar overlay test; Cytocompatibility; Implant; Titanium alloy; WST-1 test

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