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J Neurol. 2013 Dec;260(12):3030-8. doi: 10.1007/s00415-013-7108-7. Epub 2013 Sep 22.

Intravenous amantadine on freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, Seoul National University-Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, College of Medicine Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


To compare the effects of intravenous amantadine and placebo therapy on freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease, this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial compared the efficacy of 5 days intravenous amantadine and placebo treatments on freezing of gait in 42 subjects randomly allocated 2:1 to amantadine or placebo groups. Changes in freezing of gait questionnaire (FOG-Q) scores and in unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) scores, from baseline to immediately (V1) and 1 month (V2) after treatments, were assessed. Among the 42 patients (amantadine n = 29, placebo n = 13, a mean age 65.5 ± 9.4 years and a mean FOG-Q score 17.4 ± 3.2), 40 subjects completed treatment. There was no significant group difference on the primary outcome measure as total FOG-Q score changes at V1. However a significant beneficial effect of amantadine on freezing was seen at V2 in the UPDRS Part II freezing and FOG-Q item 3 scores, and there was significant improvement in the UPDRS Part IV total score and in the UPDRS Part II getting out of bed score in the amantadine group at both V1 and V2. There was no serious adverse event reported during the study. The intravenous amantadine therapy did not show a significant improvement on overall FOG-Q scores in patients with moderate-to-severe freezing; however, it might be beneficial by attenuating freezing severity and improving patients' mobility. To prove this finding further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted in the future.

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