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J Virol. 2013 Dec;87(23):13076-80. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01174-13. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Highly divergent type 2 and 3 vaccine-derived polioviruses isolated from sewage in Tallinn, Estonia.

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  • 1National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland.


Highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have been isolated from sewage in Tallinn, Estonia, since 2002. Sequence analysis of VDPVs of serotypes 2 and 3 showed that they shared common noncapsid region recombination sites, indicating origination from a single trivalent oral polio vaccine dose, estimated to have been given between 1986 and 1998. The sewage isolates closely resemble VDPVs chronically excreted by persons with common variable immunodeficiency, but no chronic excretors have yet been identified in Estonia.

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