Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Biochemistry. 2013 Oct 22;52(42):7439-48. doi: 10.1021/bi4006418. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Analysis of the interaction of tarantula toxin Jingzhaotoxin-III (β-TRTX-Cj1α) with the voltage sensor of Kv2.1 uncovers the molecular basis for cross-activities on Kv2.1 and Nav1.5 channels.

Author information

  • 1Key Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Developmental Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University , Changsha, Hunan 410081, China.

Abstract

Animal venoms contain a fascinating array of divergent peptide toxins that have cross-activities on different types of voltage-gated ion channels. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Jingzhaotoxin-III (JZTX-III), a 36-residue peptide from the tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao, is specific for Nav1.5 and Kv2.1 channels over the majority of other ion channel subtypes. JZTX-III traps the Nav1.5 DII voltage sensor at closed state by binding to the DIIS3-S4 linker. In this study, electrophysiological experiments showed that JZTX-III had no effect on five voltage-gated potassium channel subtypes (Kv1.4, Kv3.1, and Kv4.1-4.3), whereas it significantly inhibited Kv2.1 with an IC50 of 0.71 ± 0.01 μM. Mutagenesis and modeling data suggested that JZTX-III docks at the Kv2.1 voltage-sensor paddle. Alanine replacement of Phe274, Lys280, Ser281, Leu283, Gln284, and Val288 could decrease JZTX-III affinity by 7-, 9-, 34-, 12-, 9-, and 7-fold, respectively. Among them, S281 is the most crucial determinant, and the substitution with Thr only slightly reduced toxin sensitivity. In contrast, a single conversion of Ser281 to Ala, Phe, Ile, Val, or Glu increased the IC50 value by >34-fold. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis experiments indicated that the functional surface of JZTX-III bound to the Kv2.1 channel is composed of four hydrophobic residues (Trp8, Trp28, Trp30, and Val33) and three charged residues (Arg13, Lys15, and Glu34). The bioactive surfaces of JZTX-III interacting with Kv2.1 and Nav1.5 are only partially overlapping. These results strongly supported the hypothesis that animal toxins might use partially overlapping bioactive surfaces to target the voltage-sensor paddles of two different types of ion channels. Increasing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of toxins interacting with voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels may provide new molecular insights into the design of more potent ion channel inhibitors.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

LinkOut - more resources

Full Text Sources

Molecular Biology Databases

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for American Chemical Society
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk