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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 1;110(40):16079-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1306556110. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

TLR-induced PAI-2 expression suppresses IL-1β processing via increasing autophagy and NLRP3 degradation.

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  • 1Institute of Molecular Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10002, Taiwan.


The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multiprotein complex, triggers caspase-1 activation and maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 upon sensing a wide range of pathogen- and damage-associated molecules. Dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activity contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, but its regulation remains poorly defined. Here we show that depletion of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2), a serine protease inhibitor, resulted in NLRP3- and ASC (apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a C-terminal caspase recruitment domain)-dependent caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in macrophages upon Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 engagement. TLR2 or TLR4 agonist induced PAI-2 expression, which subsequently stabilized the autophagic protein Beclin 1 to promote autophagy, resulting in decreases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, NLRP3 protein level, and pro-IL-1β processing. Likewise, overexpressing Beclin 1 in PAI-2-deficient cells rescued the suppression of NLRP3 activation in response to LPS. Together, our data identify a tier of TLR signaling in controlling NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reveal a cell-autonomous mechanism which inversely regulates TLR- or Escherichia coli-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and IL-1β-driven inflammation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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