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Gene. 2013 Dec 1;531(2):243-52. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.09.004. Epub 2013 Sep 13.

A collection of glycosyltransferases from rice (Oryza sativa) exposed to atrazine.

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  • 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Pesticide Science, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China; Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Crop Diseases and Pest Insects, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.


The rice (Oryza sativa) GTs belong to a super family possibly with hundreds of members. However, which GTs are involved in plant response to toxic chemicals is unknown. Here, we demonstrated 59 novel GT genes screened from our recent genome-wide sequencing datasets of rice crops exposed to atrazine (a herbicide persistent in ecosystems). Analysis of GT genes showed that most of the GTs contain functional domains typically found in proteins transferring glycosyl moieties to their target compounds. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that many GT genes from different families have diverse cis-elements necessary for response to biotic and environmental stresses. Experimental validation for the GTs was undertaken through a microarray, and 36 GT genes were significantly detected with an expression pattern similar to that from deep-sequencing datasets. Furthermore, 12 GT genes were randomly selected and confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Finally, the special activity of total GTs was determined in rice roots and shoots, with an increased activity under the atrazine exposure. This response was closely associated with atrazine absorption in the rice tissues. These results indicate that exposure to atrazine can trigger specific GT genes and enzyme activities in rice.

© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1, 3, 5-triazine-2, 4-diamine; ABA; Atrazine; CAZy; Carbohydrate-Active enZymes; GTs; Glycosyltransferases; HPLC; High-throughput sequencing; Microarray; Rice; TSSs; abscisic acid; glycosyltransferases; high performance liquid chromatography; qRT-PCR; quantitative real time RT-PCR; transcription start sites

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