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Vaccine. 2014 Jan 23;32(5):631-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.08.102. Epub 2013 Sep 10.

Genetic basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease serotype A viruses from the Middle East.

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  • 1The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK.
  • 2National Veterinary Institute, DebreZit, Ethiopia.
  • 3MSD Animal Health, Intervet International GmbH, Osterather Straße 1a, 50739 Cologne, Germany.
  • 4The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK. Electronic address:


Foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) from serotype A exhibit high antigenic diversity. Within the Middle East, a strain called A-Iran-05 emerged in 2003, and subsequently replaced the A-Iran-96 and A-Iran-99 strains that were previously circulating in the region. Viruses from this strain did not serologically match with the established A/Iran/96 vaccine, although most early samples matched with the older A22/Iraq vaccine. However, many viruses from this strain collected after 2006 had poor serological match with the A22/Iraq vaccine necessitating the development of a new vaccine strain (A/TUR/2006). More recently, viruses from the region now exhibit lower cross-reactivity with the A/TUR/2006 antisera highlighting the inadequacy of the serotype A vaccines used in the region. In order to understand the genetic basis of these antigenic phenotypes, we have determined the full capsid sequence for 57 Middle Eastern viruses isolated between 1996 and 2011 and analysed these data in context of antigenic relationship (r1) values that were generated using antisera to A22/Iraq and A/TUR/2006. Comparisons of capsid sequences identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites (1, 2 and 4), which either individually or together underpin these observed antigenic phenotypes.

Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.


Antigenic determinants; Antigenic variation; Capsid sequence; Epitopes; FMD virus; Polyclonal antibodies

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