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Springerplus. 2013 Aug 28;2:412. doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-412. eCollection 2013.

Comparison of the clonality of urothelial carcinoma developing in the upper urinary tract and those developing in the bladder.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, The Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, London Health Sciences Centre-Victoria Hospital London, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON Canada.



To identify the origin of synchronous and metachronous urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder and upper urinary tract to get a better understanding of the basic mechanism behind the multifocality of UC, which may provide a sound bases for the future development of new strategies for detection, prevention and therapy.


Six patients with UC of the bladder and synchronous or metachronous UC of the upper urinary tract were studied. Genetic analysis involving the study of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been evaluated on their tumours using well characterised and new markers of UC (D9S171, D9S177, D9S303 and TP53).


Five of the six patients demonstrated informative results. Four of five (80%) of patients had synchronous or metacharonous UC tumour and showed patterns of LOH consistent with tumorigenesis from monoclonal tumour origin. One of five (20%) patients exhibited a LOH consistent with oligoclonal tumorigenesis.


These findings suggest that both the monoclonal and field cancerization theory of tumorigenesis may play a role in tumors of the urothelial tract. However, more data is needed.


Bladder cancer; Transitional cell carcinoma; Upper urinary tract cancer; Urothelial carcinoma

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