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Mult Scler. 2013 Oct;19(11):1508-17. doi: 10.1177/1352458513501231. Epub 2013 Sep 6.

Observational case-control study of the prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: results from the CoSMo study.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, Universit√† Vita Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.



Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been proposed as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis (MS).


The CoSMo study evaluated the association between CCSVI and MS.


The primary end-point of this multicentric, case-control study was to compare the prevalence of CCSVI between patients with MS, patients with other neurodegenerative diseases (ONDs) and healthy controls (HCs). Color-coded duplex sonography was performed by a sonologist and the images were sent to one of three central sonologists for a second reading. Agreement between local and central sonologists or, in case of disagreement, the predominant judgment among the three central readers, was required for a diagnosis of CCSVI. All readings, data collection and analysis were blinded.


The study involved 35 MS centers across Italy and included 1874 subjects aged 18-55. 1767 (94%) were evaluable: 1165 MS patients, 226 patients with ONDs and 376 HCs. CCSVI prevalence was 3.26%, 3.10% and 2.13% for the MS, OND and HC groups, respectively. No significant difference in CCSVI prevalence was found amongst the three cohorts (MS versus HC, OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 0.72-3.36, p = 0.30; OND versus HC, OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 0.53-4.11, p = 0.46; MS versus OND, OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.47-2.39, p = 0.99). High negative and low positive agreement was found between the local and centralized readers.


CCSVI is not associated with MS.


Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency; Italy; circulatory system; multicentric study; multiple sclerosis; neurodegenerative disease; prevalence study; sonography

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