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Indian J Virol. 2012 Sep;23(2):99-105. doi: 10.1007/s13337-012-0102-3. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Viruses of freshwater finfish in the asian-pacific region.

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  • 1Fish Health Management Division, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Kausalyaganga, Bhuabaneswar, 751 002 India.


There has been a tremendous increase in global demand for marine and freshwater fish to meet the protein needs of our expanding human population. However, due to the limited capacity of the wild-capture sector and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture, particularly freshwater aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. A large number of aquatic animal species are farmed in high density in freshwater, brackish and marine systems, where they are exposed to new environments and potentially new diseases. Further, environmental stress factors, the use of manufactured feeds, and prolific global trade has led to the emergence and spread of new diseases. Viral pathogens, established for decades or newly emerging as disease threats, are particularly challenging since there are few efficacious treatments. Vaccines have been developed for some viral fish pathogens in salmonids, but vaccines are not available for many of the viral pathogens important in Asia. Control and eradication programs are difficult because many viral infections remain latent until adverse environmental conditions, such as overcrowding or poor water quality, trigger the onset of disease. Here, we review the more significant viral pathogens of finfish in the Asia-Pacific including both those with a long history in Asian aquaculture and emerging pathogens including betanodaviruses and koi herpes virus that have caused massive losses in the freshwater aquaculture and ornamental fish industries.


Aquaculture; Asia; Fish; Virus

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